channels aretelevision channelsdevoted totelevision newsbroadcasts, with the name deriving from the proliferation of such networks during the 1980s with the advent ofcable television. In theUnited States, early networks includedCNNin 1980,Financial News Network(FNN) in 1981 and CNN2 (nowHLN) in BCwas created in 1989, taking control of FNN in 1991. Through the 1990s and beyond, the cablenewsindustry continued to grow, with the establishment of several other networks, including,Fox News Channel(FNC),MSNBC, andspecialty channelssuch asBloomberg TelevisionFox Business Network, andESPN News. More recent additions to the cable news business have beenCBSNNewsmax TVTheBlazeFusionOne America News Network, part-time news networkRFD-TV, andfor a timeAl Jazeera America.

As some of the most highly available channels, FNC, CNN, and MSNBC are sometimes referred to as the big three with Fox News having the highest viewership and ratings. While the networks are usually referred to as24-hournews networks, reruns of news programs and analysis or opinion programming are played throughout the night, with the exception ofbreaking news.

Regional24-hourcable news television channels that are primarily concerned withlocal programmingand cover some statewide interest have includedSpectrum News(a brand used for multiple networks including in upstate New York, North Carolina, Florida and Texas),NY1(which operates from New York City),News 12 NetworksFiOS1, and the formerNorthwest Cable News(NWCN) (which operated from Seattle).New England Cable Newscovers the six-state region of New England.

Fox News Channel (FNC) was founded in 1996 under the ownership ofNews Corporation(founded byAustralian-born media mogulRupert Murdoch), the third largest media company in the United States behindSonyViacomTime WarnerandThe Walt Disney Company. The network is headed by. The network began broadcasting its programming in high definition in May 2008.1

Since the networks launch, FNC has gradually grown to become the highest-rated cable network.2FNCs former prime time lineup included programs such asThe OReilly Factor,hosted byBill OReilly, which had been a top rated program since the early 2000s when considered among major cable news channels. The channels longtime slogans areFair and Balancedand We Report. You Decide.

MSNBC debuted in 1996, as a partnership betweenNBC NewsandMicrosoft(Microsofts stake in the channel was gradually bought out by NBC until the latters parentNBCUniversalbought out the remaining minority stake held by Microsoft in 2011). When the network was launched, its leading hosts includedJodi ApplegateJohn GibsonTim RussertandBrian Williams. For over a decade, the networks ratings were consistently in last place among the cable news channels.

AfterPhil Griffinbecame president of MSNBC in mid-2008, the channel began shifting towards an increasingly politically liberal ideology in its analysis programming, particularly in itsprime-time lineup.345MSNBC launched a high definition simulcast feed on June 29, 2009.6

Notable personalities on the network includeMorning Joeco-hostsJoe ScarboroughandMika Brzezinski, daytime anchorsChuck ToddandAndrea Mitchell, and evening commentatorsChris MatthewsandRachel Maddow. The network was noted in the mid-2000s for its harsh criticism of then-PresidentGeorge W. Bush, most notably the special comment segment of former anchorKeith Olbermanns show,Countdown. This, combined with accusations of support for then-PresidentBarack Obama, have led to MSNBC being criticized for a liberal bias, a reputation it has increasingly embraced with its Lean Forward slogan (which it adopted in 2011) and open promotion of progressive and liberal ideas.

The channel had a spin-off calledShift. Established in 2014, it was an online-only channel through its website The programming schedule was less focused on politics than the main channel, built to be a divergence from it and is more tailored to a younger audience. The channel ceased operations without notice some time before 2018.

Cable News Network (CNN) launched on June 1, 1980, as the first cable channel devoted to news programming. ThePersian Gulf Warin 1991 catapulted CNN into the spotlight, largely because the channel was the only news outlet with the ability to communicate from insideIraqduring the initial hours of the American bombing campaign, with live reports from theal-Rashid HotelinBaghdadbyJohn HollimanandPeter Arnett. Throughout the 1990s, CNN (which was at the time the only major cable news channel) became very influential, an influence later coined as theCNN effect.

CNN was the first cable news network to begin broadcasting inhigh definitionin September 2007.7Today, CNNstelevision personalitiesincludeWolf BlitzerErin BurnettAnderson CooperandJake Tapper.

Further information:HLN (TV network)CNN InternationalCNN Airport NetworkCNN en EspañolCNN Sports Illustrated, andCNNfn

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In 1982, theTurner Broadcasting System(which would merge withTime Warnerin 1996) created a spin-off of CNN called CNN2, which was originally formatted to show the top news stories of the day on a 30-minute wheel schedule. The channel rebranded as CNN Headline News in 1983, before the network abandoned the CNN branding and changed its name to theorphaned initialismHLN in 2008, following a shift from news programming towards a mix of news during the day and discussion programs and documentary series at night that began two years earlier.

Turner foundedCNN Internationalin 1985, with a straight focus on international news stories compared to CNN, which featured an equal emphasis on U.S. and world news. CNN launched a special service on January 20, 1992 called CNN Airport Network which is available exclusively in United States airports; the service simulcasts programs from CNN and HLN, but with inserts of information of interest to air travelers. CNN also operates aSpanish languageservice, CNN en Español.

Turner Broadcasting also established two, now defunct networks. CNNfn, launched at the end of 1995, attempting to challengeCNBC. It ceased operations after nine years on the air in December 2004. CNNSI, a partnership between CNN andSports Illustrated, attempted to counter the rising success ofESPNewsin covering sports news. While the network was shut down, CNN and Sports Illustrated continue to maintain their partnership, with Sports Illustrated operating a sports section on CNNs website.

Until the start of 2002, CNN was the number one cable news network in the ratings.8FNC has been number one among cable news audiences since that point.9

Starting in 2013, a major ratings decline at MSNBC has pushed that network to fourth place in March 2015.10

FNC marked its 15th year as the highest-rated cable news channel in the same demographic, posting 2.8 million average total viewers in January 2017. MSNBC beat CNN in total primetime viewers, ranking sixth among all cable networks in January. CNN beat MSNBC, but trailed first place Fox News Channel, in total daytime viewers.111213

Blaze TV is a news and opinion network operated by Blaze Media, a joint venture betweenConservative ReviewandGlenn BeckMercury Radio Arts. It began September 12, 2012 as GBTV, initially controlled solely by Beck, and formed the joint venture December 3, 2018, taking on the programming of CRTV, Conservative Reviews subscription video service that had launched in October 2016. Blaze TV is explicitlyconservativein perspective, with popular hosts on the network including Beck,Mark LevinPat GraySteve DeaceSteven CrowderandPhil Robertson. Blaze TV is available viaDish NetworkandVerizon FiOS, various smaller cable providers, and through subscriptionInternet television.

Free Speech TV (FSTV) is a national, independent, progressive news network that reaches more than 40 million television households in the United States. The network brands itself as the alternative to television networks owned by billionaires, governments and corporations. It was launched in 1995 and is owned and operated by Public Communicators Incorporated, a 501(c)3 non-profit, tax-exempt organization founded in 1974. Distributed principally by Dish Network, DirecTV, and the networks live stream at and on Roku, Free Speech TV has run commercial free since 1995 with support from viewers and foundations. The network claims to amplify underrepresented voices and those working on the front lines of social, economic and environmental justice, bringing viewers an array of daily news programs, independent documentaries and special events coverage. In practice, the networks political leanings represent a left-wing perspective, with severalprogressive talk radiohosts having time slots on the network and the network simulcastingDemocracy Now!with longtime progressive radio networkPacifica.

Fusion is owned byUnivision Communications, The channel was created as ajoint venturebetween Univison andDisney-ABC Television Groupsubsidiary ofThe Walt Disney Companyand relies in part on the resources of their respective news divisions,ABC NewsandNoticias Univision. The channel launched in October 2013. The networks content featuresnews, lifestyle,pop culture, satire and entertainment aimed atEnglish-speakingmillennials, including those of aHispanic background; the channel is Univisions first major push into English-language programming. The channel features talent such asAlicia MenendezMariana AtencioandJorge Ramos.

It is distributed on both Dish Network and DirecTV along with Verizon FIOS, AT&T U-Verse, Google Fiber andCablevision/Optimumand is being provided on upcoming Disney/ESPN carriage deals with other providers. Fusion while a joint venture was ABCs third attempt at a cable news channel afterSatellite News ChannelandABC News Now. (ABC pulled out of the venture in 2015.)

InfoWars began its existence in 1999 as the online outlet for conspiracy theorist and radio hostAlex Jones. It began carrying a live video feed of Joness show in the 2010s and expanded to hire other hosts in the same era. InfoWars originally was positioned as an extremelibertarianideology (during the 2000s Jones frequently accused theGeorge W. Bush Administrationof numerous conspiracy theories including accusations that they hadorchestrated the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacksand in 2008 was a backer ofRon Pauls presidential campaign) but shifted into analt-rightfar-rightpositioning with the rise and ultimate success of the2016 Donald Trump presidential campaign. Its hosts and contributors include Jones,Paul Joseph WatsonMike CernovichRoger Stone, andJerome Corsi.

Most satellite and cable providers have refused to carry InfoWars, and most social media outletsblacklistedthe outlet in 2018. The video feed is available through the InfoWars web site and a limited number of terrestrial affiliates.

Newsmax TV debuted June 15, 2014 as a television arm ofNewsmax Media, a media company better known for its magazine and website. The channel runs a mix of rolling news coverage in the afternoons, video simulcasts ofconservative talk radioprograms, talk shows, and reruns of documentaries. Talent on the network includesHowie CarrWayne Allyn RootJoe PagliaruloandBill OReilly. Until mid-2016, it was distributed on bothDish NetworkandDirecTV, Dish has since dropped it. The channel does have numerous local broadcasting affiliates. A live stream of the channel is also available for free online at , as well as YouTube.14Newsmax TV has generally been described as right-wing, broadcasting many programs hosted by conservative media personalities.

NewsNet is based inCadillac, MichiganatWMNN-LD, a local all-news television outlet. The network launched nationally on 18 affiliates with test programming in late December 2018, with the full launch took place on January 1, 2019. NewsNet follows a traditional rolling news clock with no opinion programming. It is available, in addition to its terrestrial affiliate base, as a free channel on streaming platforms.

Newsy began in 2008 as a syndication service providing news videos to mobile and Web users. It was acquired byThe E. W. Scripps Company, an owner of local television stations, in 2014 and transformed into its current form, a linear channel devoted to rolling news coverage and short-form videos. Originally distributed solely via over-the-top platforms, Newsy was offered to cable outlets beginning in late 2017.

One America News Network (OANN) was launched in the summer of 2013 by Herring Networks, initially under the cooperation ofThe Washington Times. The channels content consists of rolling news coverage and political talk shows from aconservativeviewpoint. The network is distributed by DirecTV, Verizon FiOS,CenturyLinkPrism, Consolidated Communications, and AT&T U-verse. It formerly streamed online but no longer does so directly as of December 2014; its set-top box streaming apps remain in operation.

In 2015, OANN was said to have viewership that outperforms Fusion, Bloomberg and Al Jazeera combined, according to first quarter ratings on total hours viewed, despite its much narrower distribution.15

RFD-TV (Rural Free Delivery Television) is a rural-oriented television network independently owned and operated by Rural Media Group. The majority of its daytime weekday programming is devoted to news coverage, including outside-produced newscasts such asU.S. Farm Report,AgDayandThis Week in Agribusiness, the networks nightlyRural Evening News, and a five-hour rolling news coverage block centered on agricultural commodities coverage with news and weather. RFD-TV is available through both national satellite providers, on a limited number of cable outlets, and through apaywalledInternet stream.

RT America (branded on air as RT) is the official arm of theRussian Federations media organ,Russia Today. The American channel launched in 2010 and broadcasts content from both the international and United Kingdom editions of RT in addition to original programming from its American studios. Its approach is alternative and purposely contrarian in nature compared to most American news outlets. Talent on the network includes hostsLarry KingLee CampJesse VenturaAlex SalmondandMike Papantonio. It is available nationally on Dish Network and DirecTV and regionally onCharter Spectrumand other cable providers, and through a limited number of terrestrial affiliates that carry RT ondigital subchannels. Additionally, RT America is made available through several streaming apps across many different platforms such as Roku and Android TV as well as several Blu-ray players and smart TVs. The channels live stream is also available free on RTs website. RT has beenregistered as a foreign agentsince November 2017.16

i24NEWS is an English language international news television channel that is owned byAltice USA. It is the English version ofi24NEWS, a news service based inIsraeland operated as a joint venture by Israels two most prominent commercial broadcasters. The network began broadcasting in the US on February 13, 2017. It is live from 6-10 p.m. Eastern Time and at other times broadcasts from Israel. Live programming is broadcast fromTimes Squarein New York with an additional bureau in Washington, D.C. The channel uses resources from i24s mainJaffaheadquarters. Talent includesDavid Shusterwho is also the managing editor,Michelle Makori, andDan Raviv. The channel acquired many of its debut behind-the-scenes talent from the formerAl Jazeera America. The channel is carried on Altice USA-owned Optimum andSuddenlinkcable systems and Charter Spectrum. The channel live streams via its website.

CGTN America is the American division ofChina Global Television Network, the English-language news channel run by Chinese state broadcasterChina Central Television. It is based inWashington, D.C.and manages bureaus acrossNorthandSouth America. The service launched in 2012 as CCTV America and employs a mix ofAmerican, international andChinesejournalists and produces Americas-based programming with a focus on Asia forCGTN. The channel is carried on DirecTV, Dish Network, AT&T U-Verse and smaller carriers and live streams via its website andLivestream.

CNC World is an English-language network majority owned byXinhua, the Chinese state news agency. It has a more explicitpropagandaaim than CGTN and is closely intertwined with theChinese Communist Party. Its U.S. operations are based inNew York City. The channel is available through digital subchannels and a live stream on the Internet.

BBC World News is the BBCs international news and current affairs television channel.17While the channel does not specifically target the U.S., the BBC has a bureau inWashington, D.C., and produces two programs that cover U.S. news and politics:BBC World News AmericaandBeyond 100 Days. These shows are also broadcast on public television stations, as well as half-hourBBC World Newsbulletins. BBC World News has covered both U.S. presidential and midterm elections results. The BBC produces weather forecasts for the U.S. and Canada and runs advertisements on the U.S. feed, as foreign broadcasts are not covered by theUnited Kingdom television license. The channel is carried on Cablevision, Comcast, Spectrum, Verizon FiOS and AT&T U-Verse, as well as internet TV providersYouTube TVandSling TV. A 2018 survey for Research Intelligencer by Brand Keys found that the BBC was the most trusted TV news brand among American viewers, beating out Fox News and PBS.18

*FBNis operated as a division of theFox Entertainment Group which had $1.85 billion in net income in 2004. No information reported for the profits or losses which the FBN division represents.

CNBC (originally an abbreviation for the Consumer News and Business Channel) was launched byNBCin 1989 after the purchase ofSatellite Program Network, and merged with competitorFinancial News Networkthat same year. It is owned by the NBCUniversal News Group, a unit of theNBCUniversalTelevision Group division of NBCUniversal. CNBC is the widest distributed of the business channels with about 84.27% of carriage. The channel has many international spin-offs.

CNBC gained a competitor in the financial news genre with Bloomberg Television, which was created in 1994 byBloomberg L.P., led by former. It is distributed worldwide through cable, satellite and internet providers, and is headquartered in New York. Bloomberg Television was unusual in that its Internet stream, one of the few television networks to continuously offer a video feed over the Internet since the 1990s, was free to the public; the feed was placed behind a softpaywallalong with the rest of Bloombergs Internet ventures in May 2018.

FBN is the sister business network to Fox News Channel. In October 2007, News Corporation launched its own financial news network called Fox Business Network (FBN); News Corporation CEO Rupert Murdoch stated his reason for launching the channel was that CNBC is too negative towards business, and had promised to make FBN more business friendly.

Cheddar was established in 2017 as an initially online-only channel that operated on afreemiummodel with some content free and otherspaywalled. It was acquired byAltice USAin 2019 and, after a two-year run in which several low-powered stations owned byDTV Americacarried the slot, began transitioning to cable systems that year. Cheddar targets a younger audience than the other business news channels.

FBNs ratings were initially too low to be registered beyond Nielsens margin of error;20its highest viewership was estimated to be 202,000 viewers, during the 7:00a.m.Eastern Timehour ofImus in the Morningsdebut broadcast on the network in 2009.21By October 2016, FBN had surpassed CNBC, as roughly a third of CNBCs viewership migrated to FBN over the course of a year, with both netting approximately 170,000 viewers.22Bloomberg also does not subscribe to Nielsen and its ratings are assumed to be very low (however, its viewership was higher than CNBCs when Bloombergs programming was simulcast onE!in the early morning hours, an arrangement that began in 2004 afterUSA Networkended its simulcast of the channel after ten years, and was discontinued altogether under E! in 2007).23Currently, CNBC usually has between 200,000-400,000 viewers during the day.24In 2000, CNBC had higher ratings than CNN during market hours.25The viewership of business newscasts may be underestimated in part because much of its viewership comes from communal areas, most of which cannot be accurately measured by Nielsen and are thus not counted; for this reason, CNBC dropped its subscription to Nielsen in 2015.26RFD-TVs average viewership, including for its financial market coverage as well as its non-news programming, is approximately 136,000 viewers.27

ESPNlaunched a 24-hour sports news channel named ESPNews on November 1, 1996, which is carried by most cable and satellite providers, although usually only on dedicated sports and information tiers. It airs news, highlights, press conferences and commentary by analysts all in relation to sports. ESPNews was also syndicated toregional sports networksas daytime filler programming and also often appears asblackoutfiller on ESPN or ESPN2 when those channels air a program unavailable in a certain geographic area.

ESPNews scaled back its news-only format in 2013, after several years of ESPN expanding its flagship newscast,SportsCenter, throughout the daytime hours on the main channel. ESPNews newscasts are now branded under theSportsCenterbrand, while replays of ESPN2 talk programs typically air whenSportsCenterairs on ESPNs main channel.

At least one of the ESPN networks is usually carrying aSportsCenterbroadcast at any given time, with the lone exceptions being particularly busy sports days in which all three networks (ESPN, ESPN2 and ESPNEWS) are carrying sporting events and the networksmulti-channel coverage of major sports events.

Fox Entertainment Groupre-brandedSpeed ChannelasFS1, a sports channel carrying both analysis shows and live sports events, on August 13, 2013. The studio programs are usually pushed to its sister station,FS2, when live sports are occurring during the broadcast.FS2acts primarily as an overflow network forFS1, airing their studio programs when they cannot air on FS1 due to schedule conflicts, and also airs reruns of FS1 programming. However, FS2 does air live sports as well, most often from outside the United States.

Fox Sports has, three times in its history, attempted to launch a national sportscast. The first two aired onFox Sports Net: theNational Sports Reportfrom 19962002, andFinal Scorefrom 20062011. The third,Fox Sports Live, aired on FS1 from the networks launch until 2017.

Originally launched as the Outdoor Life Network in 1995, re-branded in 06 as Versus and re-branded yet again in 2012 as NBC Sports Network, the name was finally abbreviated toNBCSN. Unlike NBC, which airs reruns of the most anticipated Olympic events of the day, NBCSN airs Olympic events live. The network also extensively covers theNational Hockey Leagueand thePremier Leaguein England, also carrying limited college football, basketball and hockey. NBCSN also airs news & analysis programming; since parent companyComcastpurchased British broadcasterSky plcin 2019, NBCSN has simulcastSky Sports Newsduring the early afternoon hours. Unlike ESPN and Fox, the network does not have a flagship, all-sport newscast, with its news and discussion programs generally centered around individual sports. The networks attempts at general-purpose shows have typically been short-lived.

DuringNBC and NBCSNs coverage of the Olympic Games, sister networkOlympic Channel(and before that, its predecessorUniversal Sports) flips to an all-sports news format, providing summary coverage of the days Olympic events.

CBS Sports Networkwas founded asCollege Sports TV. It still maintains a primary focus on college sports, but has since broadened to include general studio discussion shows, simulcasts ofCBS Sports Radiotalk shows, and some lower-end professional sports.

On February 26, 2018, CBS Sports launchedCBS Sports HQ, an Internet-only channel that serves as a 24-hour channel for sports news, highlights and discussion programs, without any live sports.

ESPNUis a 24-hour sports news network dedicated to college sports. ESPN airs a customized version ofSportsCenter, SportsCenter U, covering college sports, as well as documentaries about college teams and players.

TheBig Ten Network, whose origins can be traced back to 03, airs a large amount of original sports programming, including a program similar toSportsCentercalled Big Ten Tonight, as well as live sports. Unlike other college sports channels, such asESPNUor BTNs sister stationFox College Sports, BTN covers the Big Ten Conference exclusively.

Fox College Sports (FCS) airs an extremely large amount of live sports. Because Fox Sports has so many rights to so many college sporting events, FCS networks are split by region, similar to Fox Sports.

Launched in 2011 as a joint venture betweenESPN& theTexas Longhorns, theLonghorn Networkairs over 20 different live sports, as well as sports news & analysis.

Three years after the launch of theLonghorn NetworkESPNentered a similard joint venture with theSoutheastern Conference, also known as the SEC. While it does broadcast over 20 different SEC sports, it also airs analysis of upcoming games as well as a sports talk show. SomeSEC Networkfootball games are simulcast onWDCW.

ThePac-12 Networkcovers every sport in the PAC-12 as well as every team in the conference, airing nearly 900 live events a year. With the vast number of events in the PAC-12, the Pac-12 Network has been split into six separate regional channels.

The Weather Channelis the market leader in news regarding weather forecasting and the most widely distributed cable network in the United States. It was launched in August 1982, under the ownership ofLandmark Communications(which sold the network to ajoint ventureofNBCUniversalBlackstone GroupandBain Capitalin 2008; these parties, in turn, split the channel, with the non-broadcast assets going toIBMin 2016 and the channel itself going toByron AllenEntertainment Studiosin 2018). Originally, the channel was devoted entirely to weather forecasts and news coverage (withcomputer-generated local forecastsinserted through each individual cable provider every ten minutes, and previously at randomized time intervals, ten times an hour), but since 2001, the network has increasingly cut back its weather coverage in favor ofreality televisionand documentary series (this reliance on such programs has led tocarriage disputesbetweenDish NetworkandDirecTVin the early 2010s, the latter resulting in the channels first provider defection, citing subscriber complaints regarding The Weather Channels shift away from forecast programs). Most of the channels morning and at least part of its afternoon lineup remains devoted to weather news coverage and national forecasts.

Since the 2000s, there have been several other attempts to launch weather-centric television channels.

The Local AccuWeather Channelis distributed mainly as adigital subchannelon various terrestrial television outlets. Content on local versions of The Local AccuWeather Channel vary widely, ranging from a mix of local and AccuWeather content (such asWFAA) to all-local, automated outlets (such asWFMZ-TV). Now largely deprecated, only five affiliates of the Local AccuWeather Channel still carry video content from the network as of September 2019.

AccuWeather Networkis a national version of the AccuWeather channel. The network broadcasts pre-recorded national and regional weather forecasts, analysis of ongoing weather events, and weather-related news, along with local weather segments for mostly the Northeastern United States. It is currently onVerizon FIOSandDirecTV.

WeatherNation TV, originally known asThe Weather Cast, also uses this model (having taken the place of The Local AccuWeather Channel as the affiliation of certain stations weather channels since 2013), although it also provides a feed directly to cable providers and directly to consumers through mobile and smart-TV apps. A national feed is available onDish Network.

Before NBC and its partners acquired The Weather Channel, NBCUniversal operatedNBC Weather Plus, a digital multicast service that operated from 2004 to 2008 (continuing thereafter as a locally programmed service using Weather Plus graphics system called NBC Plus).

High-definition television in the United States

List of television stations in the United States

List of United States cable and satellite television networks

List of United States over-the-air television networks

Category:24-hour television news channels in the United States

Multichannel News April 29, 2008 FOX News to make HD bow with Time Warner

Cable Channel Nods to Ratings and Leans Left.

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Kurtz, Howard (2008-09-08).MSNBC Drops Olbermann, Matthews as News Anchors.

Stelter, Brian (2008-09-07).MSNBC Takes Incendiary Hosts From Anchor Seat.

MSNBC To Go HD in June. Archived fromthe originalon 2009-04-05

State of the News Media 2008. 2008


Newsmax network debuts Monday on Dish, DirecT